The stock market encompasses all the people, companies and institutions buying and selling slices of publicly-owned companies and other securities. When someone says that the stock market is down, it means that public companies in general have lost some of their value, at least in the eyes of the investors.

The stock market encompasses all the exchanges worldwide, such as the NASDAQ (where Facebook is listed) or the Toronto Stock Exchange (where Shopify is listed). There are 60 major stock exchanges recognized worldwide. New York has two stock markets (the NASDAQ and the New York Stock Exchange), Canada has three (Toronto Stock Exchange, TSV Venture Exchange and the Canadian National Stock Exchange). They’re each so big that people try to make sense of them by dividing it by sectors such as Technology, Financial and Basic Materials.

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